Archive for the ‘News’ Category
Thursday, January 7th, 2016
You hold in your hands the tools to shape your own destiny.
Wow, it’s 2016 and by now you have been to the parties and toasted the New Year and have made those resolutions that sometimes are so hard to keep. Some of us give our shop a thorough cleaning with the hope and belief that this is going to be a great year. We sharpen our screwdrivers, point up our tweezers, and, in general, check all of our tools to make sure they are in good working order. We might even buy something that we feel will help us to do a better job. What is the most important tool in our tool box? Perhaps you would say my tweezers or my screwdrivers or that tool that you very seldom use.
All of these are important but not the most important. The most important is you, because without you those tweezers, screwdrivers, and all the other tools cannot repair a clock or watch or service that customer that just came through the door. We hold in our hands the tools to shape our own destiny. It’s up to you to do what you wish with your life. You are in control. You are the driving force behind whatever you do. With a positive attitude you can change your world or possibly change the world one person at a time. Have you ever been in a room where everything was negative? Where one person felt everything was doom and gloom and they influenced the attitude of the entire room? You probably left feeling low and didn’t understand why. My wife recently went to lunch with a lady, and the whole time they were at lunch this person talked about members of her church in a negative way. Shirley said, “I will not go out with this person again because of her negative attitude.” On another occasion, she was with a former co-worker for a luncheon, and they talked about how well this person or that former employee was doing: one had gotten a promotion, and the other one had bought a new house. She came away with a good, positive feeling and looks forward to another visit with this person.
Have you ever been around someone who feels that the world is not treating them fairly or that they are owed something they did not earn? They usually get what they think about all the time, because thoughts become things. The best helping hand is at the end of your own wrist. Whatever you think about all the time will come to pass. Basketball players who are good at what they do visualize making that basket; that outstanding running back knows he is going to score. So it should be with horologists. Do you see yourself being at the top of your game? Do you see yourself working on complicated timepieces? Do you see yourself asking for a higher price for your work and getting it? Do you see yourself taking that test to become a certified watchmaker or certified clockmaker and passing it? Certification should be something that you do for yourself to see how darn good you are or can be—not to get a parts account. Remember: You hold in your hands the tools to shape your own destiny.
HAPPY NEW YEAR. MAY YOU BE BLESSED WITH GOOD HEALTH, PLENTY OF GOOD WORK, AND MAY YOU FIND ALL THE PARTS THAT YOU NEED TO DO THOSE JOBS.
Wednesday, January 6th, 2016
Business School Students Research American Manufacturing for Watches
“The Two-Week Experts”
By Elizabeth Graves
A group of MBA students at the University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business were tasked with researching the possibilities for manufacturing watches, or watch components, in the United States. Since Detroit’s Shinola is not far from the Ross School of Business in Ann Arbor, Michigan, they had some involvement in the project. In the report below, one student reveals the findings of her team.
The term “fire hose” has been used by students at Ross to describe the onslaught of intense experiences—trips, guest lectures, case competitions—students may encounter during our MBA program. Our first fire hose experience was the limited amount of time my team had to complete a case competition dealing with the watchmaking industry.
The objective of the case competition was to develop a strategy to bring more manufacturing back to the United States, specifically in the watchmaking industry. This competition required participants to identify a component of a watch that was best suited to meet this objective. As we sat through a day of presentations, all the teams seemed to come to the same conclusion: Let’s try to source the metal cases. Leather and cloth for watch straps seemed to be already sourced in the United States. Movements seemed to be a profitable secret the Swiss would never be willing to share. So watch cases were the most obvious choice.
Our Google search led us to a group of watchmaking experts, the American Watchmakers-Clockmakers Institute. For the next 30 minutes, the Executive Director, Jordan Ficklin, answered every watch-sourcing question we could think of. By the end of the conversation we were well on our way to becoming experts.
Our perspective on the watch industry is that it is steeped in tradition, which leads to cautious evolution, and this instinct is well founded and necessary. It’s a source of pride and the glue that binds a community of makers and wearers.
In that vein, the craftsmanship of the curious has been the key to moving the industry forward. From the adventurers who wanted clocks to cross the high seas, deep ocean, or outer space to those who experimented with quartz and solar panels, the watch industry, like time itself, is always moving forward. In that same spirit, we think the solution to sourcing cases in America is additive manufacturing technology (also known as 3D printing).
From our perspective, there are two types of additive manufacturing—the everyman printers and the printers that cost $500,000. They are truly worlds apart. We feel the top-of-the-line printing technology best suited to this cause is Binder Jetting. Binder Jetting is superior in both speed and versatility. Whereas regular additive printers print single layers at a time, Binder Jetting prints multiple layers at a time. You can think of it as a laser-jet printer laying down multiple drops of ink per swipe across a piece of paper. Where regular 3D printing is done in plastic, with Binder Jetting you can choose between plastic, glass, metal, and wax. After printing you then “bake” the layers in place for added stability. Many Binder Jetting projects are even produced like a shell, baked and then gone back and “filled” with a different material to suit its specific purpose (weight, durability, etc.) Unlike the everyman printer, this is not something that melts in the sun or cannot withstand pressure. This is a technology that is employed to make aircraft parts and fracking equipment. Binder Jetting shares the ability to create complex designs and can be finished in practically any material you can dream up.
The company best suited to the challenge for this case competition is called Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing (rp+m) in Avon Lake, Ohio. We were very impressed with its CEO and founder, Matt Hlavin, who was not only kind enough to lend samples of Binder Jetting (to show off to the judges), but also impressed us with the fact that he is one of the leading experts in the field and has worked extensively with the equipment manufacturer to pioneer new materials that can be used to print. The big downside: during the course of our two weeks we did not get the chance to actually print a watch case and so we cannot say beyond a theoretically educated guess what these cases would turn out to look like.*
The big benefit we see as far as watchmaking is the ability for this technology to be so versatile, and once the process is refined 5 to 10 years down the road, 3D printing will absolutely be capable of making new watch movements for both a specialized watch and an old watch whose movements are relics of the past. It will be perfect for embedding your personally designed watch case with designs impossible to duplicate by conventional method(effectively making it copy-proof) or barcodes to scan with your smartphone to find information on where to take the watch for repairs or replacement.
So how did our competition go? We came in second place.
If you would like to learn more about Michigan’s part-time MBA or to follow our adventures online please check us out on Facebook and on Michigan’s website at: www.michiganross.umich.edu/programs/weekend-mba.
To learn more about the company we profiled in this article, Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing, please see their website: www.rpplusm.com/index.html.
Elizabeth Graves is a graduate student at the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan. When she graduates, she hopes to work with businesses that are environmentally conscious.
*Editor’s note: Vortic Watch Co., (www.vorticwatches.com) based in Loveland, Colorado, uses 3D printing to produce their All American Artisan Series cases using 316 stainless steel. The cases are finished with one of three patinas (Nickel Plated, Antique Bronze, or Medieval Pewter). The cases are also available polished and without a patina. See photos.
Tuesday, December 1st, 2015
First-Ever Swiss Mechanical Watch Testing in Microgravity
In the first-ever test of its kind, Witschi Electronic was on board a parabolic flight in September to measure the timing and amplitude effects of weightlessness and hyper-gravity on mechanical watch movements. The invitation was extended by Swiss Manufacture H. Moser & Cie, which had arranged to take complete watches and watch movements on one of the first-ever Swiss parabolic flights. H. Moser & Cie CEO, Edouard Meylan, participated in the testing with his team, including members of their sister company Precision Engineering AG, and a development engineer from Witschi. The 30 watches and manufacture movements provided were equipped with in-house oscillator and escapement components. The testing was done to gather data about using new materials in escapements and hairsprings, as well as different hairspring end curves, varying frequencies, and lubrication. H. Moser & Cie produces about 1,200 watches per year, while Precision Engineering AG produces 50,000 escapements and oscillators per year. The company expects the data compiled during the testing to improve the development process and isochronous performance of their timepieces. They also expect to achieve several new patent applications.
The watches were tested by Witschi using a custom-built Chronoscope MR featuring 10 individual microphones mounted on a single rack connected to two laptop computers. A lot of planning and preparation went into setting up the instruments. The equipment had to be secured to the aircraft floor to prevent anything from shifting around and becoming a safety hazard. They also built a special soundproofing hood to protect the microphones from the incredibly loud aircraft noise as well as vibrations that could disturb or skew the readings.
The first Swiss-based parabolic flights were launched on September 21 and 22, 2015. The Dübendorf military airfield is only the second European location to offer the microgravity experience. The University of Zurich and the French company Novespace are working together to offer the flights. The first day of flights consisted mostly of scientific experiments, while the second day offered flights to anyone willing to pay nearly $10,000 for a 90-minute experience. Each flight can accommodate up to 40 people.
Traditionally used by space agencies to train astronauts, a parabolic flight is a way of creating near-weightlessness using fixed-wing, reduced-gravity aircraft specifically modified to perform repeated parabola, named for the trajectory the aircraft takes during the flight path. Each parabola lasts 65 seconds. First the aircraft climbs at a 45-degree angle, creating almost twice the force of gravity for 20 seconds. The pilot then levels off the aircraft at the top of the arc of the parabola, creating microgravity and a feeling of weightlessness for 25 seconds until the aircraft begins to descend again at a 45-degree angle. During each 90-minute flight, the pilot performs the maneuver 15 times for a total of around six minutes of space-simulating conditions.
Tuesday, December 1st, 2015
Wishing everyone Season’s Greetings from the Board of Directors and the staff of AWCI. We have had a good year and many things have been accomplished, but there is still much work to be finished. Here are some of the highlights from the past year.
- The spare parts directory has been up and running for a while. Everyone can see who will sell parts to the independent watchmaker, who is restrictive, and who is very restrictive. This information is for the consumer as well as the watchmaker.
- We had one clockmaking class in Harrison. While we would have liked to have had better attendance, we have plans for more clockmaking education in the upcoming year.
- Our watchmaking classes have been very successful. Instructor Tom Schomaker rejoined our staff earlier this year, and in addition to teaching in Harrison, he has taught some classes on the road and three at the annual convention.
- We established a new Affiliate Chapter, the LWT Alumni Association.
- We tried the webinar conference call for the first time in April with some success. This allows our members to sit in on a board meeting and keeps everything open to those who want to be informed. We did another in November and plan to continue with the program in the future. Call the office to see how you can join in.
- At the midyear meeting we set some goals for the education committee and other committees. A new mission statement was adopted, which states: “Setting service standards and educating the horological community.”
- We had monthly Board of Directors’ meetings to keep everything moving along. Our attempt to keep the meetings to one-and-a-half hours was successful for the most part.
- Our convention in Kansas City, Missouri, was absolutely the best. Good classes for watchmakers and clockmakers were taught by a number of outstanding instructors. A very positive attitude prevailed throughout the entire convention. Everybody had a good time and came away looking forward to our next convention in Chicago.
- We have plans to reach out to the retail community with battery-changing classes and to work toward doing more in the way of clock instruction. There is some interest in a new CMW certification. We’d also like to see more cooperation between watchmaking and clockmaking governing bodies.
I am looking forward to another great year in AWCI. Wishing each and every one a very Happy Holiday Season with health, happiness, and prosperity.
Monday, November 2nd, 2015
We are flying at 30,000 feet, traveling away from Kansas City. As we listen to the drone of the engines, the flight attendant says, “We will be coming through the cabin to collect any trash as we are preparing for our final descent into BWI (Baltimore Washington International Airport).” My mind races back to the super-great week we have just experienced, starting off with our first class at Jules Borel & Company, taught by Henrik Korpela from K&H Watchmaking Competence Centre in Switzerland. He taught High End Horological Decoration and Finishing. So much positive energy came out of that class. Every student found it interesting and came away knowing how to do finishes of various types, from bright screw heads to straight line finishes on watch parts. If we are fortunate enough to bring Henrik back, I recommend this class to any watchmaker who works on vintage watches or wants to match the finish on a new part. The class was two wonderful days and time well spent.
On Wednesday, the Chronometer Club gave a class taught by Tom Schomaker on how to remove scratches from a dial and hands. Tom provided a burnishing tool to remove the scratches. There was a lot of positive feeling about this exercise, as we sat burnishing out the small scratch that we had just put in the dial. This too was an interesting class, taught by a very good teacher. This class was very well received, and I would recommend it to any watchmaker.
Then it was time to go to Jules Borel & Company for a tour of their material house. They had some nice food and refreshment set up for us. Their company was established in the 1920s and is now in its fourth generation of being in business. A GREAT BIG THANK YOU goes to them for all their help with this convention.
Thursday we got into “The Rebirth of the Watchmaking and Clockmaking Spirit in America.” Our day started with our keynote speaker, Mr. Michael Wilson, Co-Founder and CEO of Niall Luxury, whose watch cases are made in Kansas City, using Eterna movements. Michael assures us that parts are readily available to us. Jordan and I had the opportunity to spend an evening with him and meet his lovely wife. We found him to be very passionate and enthusiastic about building watches in America and rebuilding that American Spirit.
The Affiliate Chapter Committee chose David Kurdzionak for their Chairperson.
The Industry Advisory Board chose Henry Kessler for their Chairperson.
The Board of Directors met and elected Fred White, President; Drew Zimmerman, Vice President; Aaron Recksieck, Secretary; and Henry Kessler, Treasurer. Also installed were two new Directors, Peter Whittle and Craig Stone. Jack Kurdzionak swore in the officers and new board members.
The next day, we toured Jules Borel & Co. Upon returning to the Hotel Phillips, we went to the Escapement Room Hospitality Suite, sponsored by Cas-Ker Co., where yours truly was surprised with birthday cake, a gift of a tie (since I had forgotten to bring ties), and a fifth of single-malt scotch.
Friday was the Vendor Fair, which included presentations by many of our vendors.
Saturday we attended classes: Jerry Faier taught a class on escapement adjusting, Kari Halme taught workshop practices, and Nicholas Manousos gave a glimpse into the future with 3D printing. There was a clockmaker’s round table discussion lead by Jerry Faier, Bob Ockenden, and Michael Gainey. Tom Schomaker gave us the Essential Practices of Water-Resistance Testing. All these classes were well received and well attended. Everyone had a good experience and took a lot of good information home with them.
The ladies had three days of activities, including some shopping and visits to various museums.
My summation is that it was our best convention in many years. The attitude was upbeat, and a great time was had by all. Thanks to Terry Kurdzionak, convention committee chairperson, Gary Borel and his daughter Jena Borel, Paul Wadsworth, and Jordan Ficklin and his staff—Donna Hardy and Cindy Whitehead were present. All of their hard work is greatly appreciated.
I recently heard that there is no “I” in “TEAM.” However, there is an “I” in “WIN,” and this convention was a winner. Thanks to everyone who contributed to its SUCCESS.
More details about the convention will follow in December’s issue of HT.
Monday, November 2nd, 2015
Patek Philippe USA Opens
Tuition-Free Watchmaking School
By Aaron Recksiek, CW21
When we reported on the management changes at the Henri Stern Watch Agency in September, it was unknown where long-time Technical Director and Master Watchmaker Laurent Junod would end up within the company. After an official announcement from Patek-Philippe in early October we now know. Laurent Junod has now earned the title Director of Technical Training at the Patek Philippe Horology Programme New York. This newly established in-house watchmaking school is only the second of its kind outside of Geneva, Switzerland. Patek Philippe opened its first satellite watchmaking school in 2013 in Shanghai, China, at the prestigious Maison Patek Philippe Shanghai.
Patek Philippe, like many other brands, recognized that the amount of repairs being received by their service center was going to drastically increase in the near future due to the favorable sales market over the last 20 years. Their US-based service center currently provides service to around 10,000 timepieces a year, currently split among 19 watchmakers. This number doesn’t include all the repairs that must be sent back to Geneva. Instead of requiring more repairs to be sent back to Switzerland and causing a longer turnaround time, Patek found it was necessary to train new watchmakers in-house to their products and standards. This in turn will free up the veteran watchmakers to handle some of the more complicated repairs that in the past would have made the transatlantic journey.
The US-based school will follow the two-year curriculum already established in the Shanghai school. While the school follows a traditional watchmaking school calendar, the training is completely integrated into the highly revered Patek four-level tiered training system already available to qualifying watchmakers. Levels 1-3 cover all the basic skills required of modern watchmakers as well as all the skills needed to service and restore most of Patek Philippe’s quartz, manual wind, and automatic watches. Level 4 is reserved for the highly complicated timepieces such as repeaters and split-second chronographs. The current curriculum will graduate the watchmakers with a level-2 designation.
The current candidates were found using a headhunter because of the secrecy surrounding the project. Out of the initial pool of 300 applicants, 80 were brought in for a formal interview and technical presentations. Six were chosen for the initial program. Classes will not be run concurrently, so the next group of students will not start until this same time of year in 2017. The tuition for the school is free, and the students are also given a small stipend to help them pay for rent and food in the country’s most expensive city. Once students complete the program, they will be offered a full-time watchmaker position with the company.
Patek Philippe will begin to interview new candidates sometime next year. If you are interested in the program you should contact Patek Philippe USA at 212-218-1240.
Aaron Recksiek is an independent watchmaker in Salt Lake City, Utah. He is a graduate of the 2008 WOSTEP class at the Lititz Watch Technicum.
Monday, October 5th, 2015
Chelsea Clock Welcomes the Governor of Massachusetts
By Aaron Recksiek, CW21
The Governor of Massachusetts, Charlie Baker, visited Chelsea Clock in September to dedicate Chelsea’s new headquarters in a ribbon-cutting ceremony. Governor Baker was joined by state and city representatives as well as the Massachusetts Secretary of Housing and Economic Development, Jay Ash. The political entourage was met by Chelsea Clock CEO, JK Nicholas, and all the employees and invited guests of the Chelsea Clock Company.
Governor Baker received a Chelsea Clock as a gift in 1998. The people he had worked with pooled their money and presented him with a Presidential Clock as he was concluding his time in state government. Governor Baker gave a special speech at the dedication and honored the company for being a “national treasure” and “holding the living memory of Massachusetts’s history.”
A week earlier, the Chelsea Clock Company held a private event with employees and family members where each of the 40 employees was presented with an engraved brick from the original factory to serve as a memento of all the history that took place there, and to thank them for their hard work as they made the transition to the new location. The move concluded a monumental undertaking of moving, tracking, and organizing over 100,000 spare parts and 55 pieces of manufacturing equipment. This has been the only move for the 118-year-old company since their founding in 1897.
For more information on the Chelsea Clock Company, read the review of the second edition of Chelsea Clock Company: The First Hundred Years in an upcoming issue of Horological Times.
Aaron Recksiek is an independent watchmaker in Salt Lake City, Utah. He was a graduate of the 2008 WOSTEP class at the Lititz Watch Technicum.
Monday, October 5th, 2015
“We are what we repeatedly do.
Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit.”
Your true success in life begins when you make a commitment to become excellent at what you do, according to Brian Tracy, who helps individuals and organizations achieve their goals. Are you committed to being the best watchmaker or clockmaker you can be? If you are, then you must practice every day doing the best work you possibly can. Challenge yourself to learn as much as you can about this profession. You learn by attending every class you can, checking out books from AWCI’s library, watching a video, working with a mentor, or asking someone who has experience in whatever your endeavor is. If you have a timepiece that you wish to learn about, ask questions and read about it. Study it before you take it apart. Photograph it as you disassemble it, which will help you particularly if it is a complicated watch or clock.
You have heard me say develop a network of people you trust and can rely on for help, but you must also be willing to give back. You can’t get more than you give any more than you can take a pint container to the well and bring back a gallon of water. You can’t give a frown and expect a smile in return; neither can you give anger and expect kindness in return. What you give with a generous heart you will get back multiplied many times.
Let’s go back to the root of the word excellence, which is excel: to surpass, to be superior. In our labors let’s strive for excellence. Will you obtain perfection? I don’t believe so, but you can come pretty darn close. It breaks my heart to see a nice timepiece with burrs under the bridge, or solder on a bushing in a clock, or the many other types of poor workmanship that we encounter. We’ve started a new column in HT, “Watchmaking Excellence: CW21 Standards,” which will show good work and bad work side by side. This will help us in our pursuit for excellence. This information should be first presented to our members and then to the public, so they can see what good work looks like. We plan to have a similar column for clockmakers.
Aristotle said, “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit.” So, we should make sure that what we repeatedly do is good practice, because if we continually do subpar work, that will become a habit. We have heard that practice makes perfect. However, if your practice is wrong, you won’t attain perfection. Good work habits get good results.
Strive for excellence in your work.
Tuesday, September 22nd, 2015
Management Changes at the Henri Stern Watch Agency
By Aaron Recksiek, CW21
Patek Philippe’s after-sales service center and sole goods distributor, located in Rockefeller Center in New York City, will be getting a new technical manager to oversee the 19 watchmakers and roughly 10,000 annual watch repairs sent in from around the nation. The Henri Stern Watch Agency is named after the son of Charles Stern, who purchased Patek Philippe in 1932. Henri Stern ran the original US distribution of Patek Philippe watches before taking over as president, sole owner, and managing director in Geneva in 1958. HSWA operates as a subsidiary of Patek Philippe SA.
Long-time Head Watchmaker and Director of Technical Services, Laurent Junod, will be moving on to another yet-to-be-announced role within the company. Junod, a native of Vallée de Joux in Switzerland, has served the company in New York for the last 27 years.
The post will be filled by David A. Bonilla from Sunset Park, Brooklyn, who is a 2007 graduate of the WOSTEP-sanctioned Nicolas G. Hayek Watchmaking School. After graduating, Bonilla worked for the Swatch Group and an Omega boutique on Fifth Avenue for nearly four years before landing with Patek Philippe in 2010. Bonilla is in his 30s and considered fairly young in the master watchmaking community. He has achieved Level-3 Watchmaker status with Patek Philippe in the five years he has been there.
In a statement to the press, Larry Pettinelli, president of Patek Philippe USA, said: “We are very pleased to have David Bonilla’s talents at HSWA. He is a highly motivated and talented watchmaker, with all the tools to become a great leader within the workshop. We will be excited to watch him develop in his new role.”
Aaron Recksiek is an independent watchmaker in Salt Lake City, Utah. He was a graduate of the 2008 WOSTEP class at the Lititz Watch Technicum.
Tuesday, September 22nd, 2015
John Harrison’s “Clock B” Breaks World Record
By Andrew DeKeyser, CW21
Dubbed simply “Clock B,” the timekeeper designed by John Harrison some 250 years ago and made by clockmaker Martin Burgess, ran its way into the Guinness World Records on April 18, 2015, after running only 5/8 of a second slow over 100 days. Guinness described it as the “most accurate mechanical clock with a pendulum swinging in free air.” The trials were overseen by the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers and the National Physical Laboratory beginning on January 6 of this year.
Harrison described this clock in his controversial book that he used to criticize his competitors and make the audacious claim that his clock could keep time within a second over a 100 day period. Burgess’s second attempt to construct that clock to Harrison’s exact specifications achieved this goal.
The Harrison-designed clock features a grasshopper escapement as well as a light pendulum bob and large amplitude. Harrison sought to improve on the design of the verge escapement while utilizing Christiaan Huygens’s application of the pendulum to horology. Harrison, a self-taught clockmaker, often used wood in his early clocks because he was a carpenter. He made his first clock at the age of 20, using metal only where absolutely necessary. He preferred wood as a building material because he was very skilled working with it. He discovered that the wood of the lignum vitae tree was naturally greasy and acts as a self-lubricating building material. A tower clock he completed in 1722 has run continuously (other than a short period in 1884 for reconditioning) for more than 270 years. As his skills as a clockmaker grew, he invented the grasshopper escapement and the gridiron pendulum and befriended several other horologists such as George Graham and Thomas Tompion.
John Harrison is best known for his invention of the marine chronometer. He dedicated his life to win the British government’s £20,000 challenge issued in 1714 to solve the problem of establishing longitude at sea within half a degree or two minutes time. When travelling west, the local time moves back one hour for every 15° of longitude. So, if the local times are known at two different points, the distance between them can be calculated, thus establishing longitude. Local time is established by the position of the sun in the sky at that specific time of year, and Greenwich local time is kept by Harrison’s marine chronometer.
“John Harrison and the Longitude Problem.” Royal Museums Greenwich website: www.rmg.co.uk/explore/astronomy-and-time/time-facts/harrison.
McKie, R. “Clockmaker John Harrison Vindicated 250 Years after ‘Absurd’ Claims.” The Guardian. www.theguardian.com/science/2015/apr/19/clockmaker-john-harrison-vindicated-250-years-absurd-claims.
Singleton, M. “John Harrison’s ‘Clock B’ Sets A World Record over 250 Years after It Was Designed.” The Verge. www.theverge.com/2015/4/20/8456821/john-harrison-clock-b-world-record.
Sobel, Dava and William J. H. Andrewes. The Illustrated Longitude. New York: Walker and Co., 1998.
Andrew DeKeyser is the owner of HCP Watchmaking in Sisters, Oregon. He graduated from the Lititz Watch Technicum with WOSTEP certification.